American Indian History

Information and Facts

Indian Wars Of The Old West:
Colorado, Part 2

Summit Springs, Colorado

Cheyenne Dog Soldiers


The battle of Summit Springs was fought on July 11, 1869 near Sterling, Colorado.

It broke for all time the power of the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers on the central Plains.

Shattered by the attack of Col. Eugene Carr in which the Cheyenne leader Tall Bull was killed (some say by Buffalo Bill Cody), the Dog Soldiers fragmented into two groups, one drifting north to join the Northern Cheyenne and the other joining the Southern Cheyenne.

Carr reported killing 52 Indians and capturing 15. One soldier was wounded in the fighting.

The site is marked, but is on private property.

Indian Wars Of The Old West:

Lava Beds National Monument, California

Lava Beds National Monument

Modoc Leader, Kintpuash
Known As "Captain Jack"

Established as a national monument chiefly for its geological and scientific value, Lava Beds is also significant as the principal battleground of the Modoc War of 1872 - 73.


In a twisted, almost impregnable volcanic fortress that came to be known as Captain Jack’s Stronghold, a handful of Modocs held off a sizable force of U.S. soldiers for six months.

Modoc leader, Kintpuash know as Capt. Jack, shot and killed Gen. Edward R. S. Canby during a peace conference on April 11, 1873. Capt. Jack ultimately surrendered. He and the chief conspirators of the slaying of Canby were executed.

Native American Event Calendar from